GRE – Graduate Record Examination. Структура и оценивание

Graduate Record Examination (GRE) – стандартизированный тест, который требуется для поступления в магистратуру многими американскими вузами. В августе 2011 года тест переделали и немного изменили, поэтому сейчас он немного отличается от того, что сдавала я, правда отличаются в основом виды заданий – главные пункты те же. В этой статье я опишу новый экзамен, а в следующей – расскажу как я когда-то к нему готовилась и как проходил процесс сдачи.

Есть две разновидности GRE – бумажный (paper-based) и компьютерный (computer-based). В большинстве стран доступен только компьютерный вариант. Нужно также отметить, что есть GRE General и GRE Subject, по определенным предметам (Biochemistry, Cell and Molecular Biology, Biology, Chemistry, Computer Science, Literature in English, Mathematics, Physics, Psychology). Какой именно тест нужно сдавать зависит от требований вуза, но обычно требуется GRE General. GRE Subject может требоваться как дополнительный некоторыми вузами и специальностями. Эта статья о GRE General.
GRE длится около 3 часов 45 минут и состоит из четырех частей:
– Аналитическое письмо (analytic writing) – 30 минут;
– Вербальная часть (verbal reasoning) – 30 минут;
– Математическая часть (quantitative reasoning) – 35 минут;
– Экспериментальная часть (experimental) – 30 или 35 минут.
Экспериментальная часть может быть как вербальная, так и математическая, причем за нее вы баллы не получаете, но при сдаче экзамена вы не знаете какая из частей теста реальная, а какая экспериментальная.
Аналитическое письмо (Analytic Writing) идет всегда первым и состоит из двух частей – Issue Essay и Argument Essay. Для Issue Essay вам дается какая-то идея, которую вы должны проанализировать и на которую надо посмотреть с разных углов. Это эссе оценивает вашу способность критически осмысливать тему и выражать свои мысли по ее поводу. Пример Issue Essay:
As people rely more and more on technology to solve problems, the ability of humans to think for themselves will surely deteriorate.
Write a response in which you discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the statement and explain your reasoning for the position you take. In developing and supporting your position, you should consider ways in which the statement might or might not hold true and explain how these considerations shape your position.
Argument Essay оценивает вашу способность понимать и анализировать аргументы, четко выражая вашу оценку в письменной форме. Вам дается небольшой параграф, в котором автор приводит определенные утверждения, подкрепленные какими-то фактами или заявлениями. Ваша задча состоит в том, чтоб обсудить логическую обоснованность автора в соответствии с данной вами инструкцией. Пример такого задания:
In surveys Mason City residents rank water sports (swimming, boating, and fishing) among their favorite recreational activities. The Mason River flowing through the city is rarely used for these pursuits, however, and the city park department devotes little of its budget to maintaining riverside recreational facilities. For years there have been complaints from residents about the quality of the river’s water and the river’s smell. In response, the state has recently announced plans to clean up Mason River. Use of the river for water sports is, therefore, sure to increase. The city government should for that reason devote more money in this year’s budget to riverside recreational facilities.
Write a response in which you examine the stated and/or unstated assumptions of the argument. Be sure to explain how the argument depends on the assumptions and what the implications are if the assumptions prove unwarranted.


Вербальная часть (Verbal Reasoning) состоит из двух секций по 20 вопросов, длится около часа (по 30 минут на каждую секцию) и имеет три типа заданий:
– Reading Comprehension
– Text Completion
– Sentence Equivalence
Reading Comprehension предлагает абзац и три типа вопросов:
– тестовые вопросы с одним правильным вариантом (multiple-choice questions – select one answer choice);
– тестовые вопросы с несколькими ответами (multiple-choice questions – select one or more answer choices) – в этом типе вопросов, если вы правильно выбрали только часть ответов, то это засчитывается как ошибка;
– выбор нужного предожения из параграфа (select-in-passage).
Пример вопросов на Reading Comprehension:
Reviving the practice of using elements of popular music in classical composition, an approach that had been in hibernation in the United States during the 1960s, composer Philip Glass (born 1937) embraced the ethos of popular music without imitating it. Glass based two symphonies on music by rock musicians David Bowie and Brian Eno, but the symphonies’ sound is distinctively his. Popular elements do not appear out of place in Glass’s classical music, which from its early days has shared certain harmonies and rhythms with rock music. Yet this use of popular elements has not made Glass a composer of popular music. His music is not a version of popular music packaged to attract classical listeners; it is high art for listeners steeped in rock rather than the classics.
Sample Multiple-choice Questions — Select One Answer Choice
The passage addresses which of the following issues related to Glass’s use of popular elements in his classical compositions?
A. How it is regarded by listeners who prefer rock to the classics
B. How it has affected the commercial success of Glass’s music
C. Whether it has contributed to a revival of interest among other composers in using popular elements in their compositions
D. Whether it has had a detrimental effect on Glass’s reputation as a composer of classical music
E. Whether it has caused certain of Glass’s works to be derivative in quality
Answer: E 
Sample Multiple-choice Questions — Select One or More Answer Choices
Consider each of the three choices separately and select all that apply.
The passage suggests that Glass’s work displays which of the following qualities?
A. A return to the use of popular music in classical compositions
B. An attempt to elevate rock music to an artistic status more closely approximating that of classical music
C. A long-standing tendency to incorporate elements from two apparently disparate musical styles
Answer: A and C
Sample Select-in-Passage Question
Select the sentence that distinguishes two ways of integrating rock and classical music.

Answer:
“His music is not a version of popular music packaged to attract classical listeners; it is high art for listeners steeped in rock rather than the classics.”



Text Completion предлагает абзац, или одно предложение и несколько слов, которые надо вставить в пропущенные места. Пример вопросов на Text Completion:

1. It is refreshing to read a book about our planet by an author who does not allow facts to be (1)__________ by politics: well aware of the political disputes about the effects of human activities on climate and biodiversity, this author does not permit them to (2)__________ his comprehensive description of what we know about our biosphere. He emphasizes the enormous gaps in our knowledge, the sparseness of our observations, and the (3)__________, calling attention to the many aspects of planetary evolution that must be better understood before we can accurately diagnose the condition of our planet.
Answer choices for question 1.
Blank (1) Blank (2) Blank (3)
overshadowed enhance plausibility of our hypotheses
invalidated obscure certainty of our entitlement
illuminated underscore superficiality of our theories
Answer: overshadowed, obscure, and superficiality of our theories
2. From the outset, the concept of freedom of the seas from the proprietary claims of nations was challenged by a contrary notion — that of the _______ of the oceans for reasons of national security and profit.
promotion
exploration
surveying
conservation
appropriation
Answer: appropriation



Equivalence Questions – абзац с пропущенным словом и шестью варинтами ответов из которых надо правильно выбрать два подходящих слова (если вы правильно выберете только одно, а в другом ошибетесь, то это не засчитывается). Пример Equivalence Questions:

Select the two answer choices that, when used to complete the sentence, fit the meaning of the sentence as a whole and produce completed sentences that are alike in meaning.
Although it does contain some pioneering ideas, one would hardly characterize the work as __________.
A. orthodox
B. eccentric
C. original
D. trifling
E. conventional
F. innovative
Answer: C and F
Математическая часть (Quantitative Reasoning) проверяет знания арифметики, алгебры, геометрии и анализа данных, состоит из двух секций по 20 вопросов, длится около часа и 10 минут (по 35 минут на секцию) и имеет 5 типов заданий:
– тестовые вопросы с одним правильным вариантом (multiple-choice questions – select one answer choice);
– тестовые вопросы с несколькими ответами (multiple-choice questions – select one or more answer choices) – в этом типе вопросов, если вы правильно выбрали только часть ответов, то это засчитывается как ошибка;
– числовой ввод (numeric entry questions) – надо написать правильный ответ;
– вопросы на сравнение (quantitative comparison questions) – просят сравнить две величины;
– анализ данных (data interpretation) – состоит из таблицы или графика и группы вопросов к одной и той же таблице/графику.
Примеры заданий с математической секции (Quantitative Reasoning):

Sample Multiple-choice Questions — Select One Answer Choice

1. The figure below shows a circle with center C and radius 6. What is the sum of the areas of the two shaded regions?

The figure for sample question 1 is a circle with center C. Two diameters of the circle are drawn, dividing the circle into 4 sectors, Two nonadjacent sectors are shaded, and the central angle of one of the unshaded sections measures 160 degrees. End of figure description.
A. 7.5 pi
B. 6 pi
C. 4.5 pi 
D. 4 pi 
E. 3 pi
Answer: D
Sample Multiple-choice Questions — Select One or More Answer Choices
Each employee of a certain company is in either Department X or Department Y, and there are more than twice as many employees in Department X as in Department Y. The average (arithmetic mean) salary is $25,000 for the employees in Department X and is $35,000 for the employees in Department Y. Which of the following amounts could be the average salary for all of the employees in the company?
Indicate all such amounts.
A. $26,000
B. $28,000
C. $29,000
D. $30,000
E. $31,000
F. $32,000
G. $34,000
Answer: A and B 
Sample Numeric Entry Question
A university admitted 100 students who transferred from other institutions. Of these students, 34 transferred from two-year community colleges, 25 transferred from private four-year institutions, and the rest transferred from public four-year institutions. If two different students are to be selected at random from the 100 students, what is the probability that both students selected will be students who transferred from two-year community colleges?
Give your answer as a fraction.
Fraction answer boxes


Answer: 17 over 150 (or any equivalent fraction) 

Sample Quantitative Comparison Question
The figure for sample question 2 shows parallelogram RSTU. Sides R U and S T are horizontal, with S T above, and slightly to the left of side R U. Diagonal S U, which extends from vertex S at the upper left of the parallelogram to vertex U at the lower right of the parallelogram, divides the parallelogram into two triangles, R S U and U S T; and the angle at vertex S into 2 adjacent angles R S U and U S T. The measure of angle R S U is x degrees, and the measure of angle U S T is y degrees. End of figure description.
RSTU is a parallelogram.

Quantity A = x; Quantity B = y
A. Quantity A is greater.
B. Quantity B is greater.
C. The two quantities are equal.
D. The relationship cannot be determined from the information given.
Answer: D
Sample Data Interpretation Question

The title of the data for questions 4-6 is Workforce of Country X. The data consists of a pie chart and a bar graph. The title of the pie chart is Percent Distribution of Workforce by Employment Sector and the title of the bar graph is Workforce in the Service Sector by Area and Gender. The percent distribution of the workforce by employment sector in the pie chart is as follows: Professional Sector 20% Service Sector 15% Construction and Maintenance Sector 10% Production and Transportation Sector 15% Other Sector 15% Sales Sector 10% Management Sector 15%. The bar graph shows the number of males and females in each of the five service sectors. The bar graph has horizontal bars. The graph has a horizontal axis labeled Millions of People, with vertical gridlines in multiples of 0.5 million, from 0.5 million to 4 million. Five Service Sector areas are listed along the vertical axis. The data in the bar graph is as follows: Health Care Sector, 0.5 million males and 2.75 million females Protective Service Sector, a little under 2 million males and 0.5 million females Food Service Sector, a little under 3 million males and a little under 4 million females Personal Care Sector, a little over 0.5 million males and about 2.75 million females Other Sector, a little under 3 million males and a little under 2 million females. End of figure description.

Approximately how many people are in the production and transportation sector of the workforce?
A. 9 million
B. 12 million
C. 15 million
D. 18 million
E. 21 million

Answer: E


Оценивание GRE
Оцениваются секции GRE General по-разному. Analytic Writing оценивается от 0.5 до 6. Вербальная и математическая секции оцениваются от 200 до 800. Для гуманитарных специальностей важнее оценка за вербальную секцию, для технических – за математическую. Но для иностранных студентов все вузы обращают большое внимание и на вербальную секцию. На какой балл надо расчитывать – зависит от вуза. Вот средние баллы на данный момент:
– Verbal: 459
– Quantitative: 590
– Writing: 3.8
Кому интересно, также публикую баллы, которые обычно набирают те, кого берут в топовые вузы:
Verbal: 529
Quantitative: 773
Verbal: 607
Quantitative: 770
Verbal: 561
Quantitative: 768
Verbal: 555
Quantitative: 768
Verbal: 626
Quantitative: 731
Verbal: 531
Quantitative: 753
Yale:
Quantitative: 743
Verbal: 522
Стоимость GRE General варьируется от  $130 до $210 и зависит от страны. Зарегистрироваться на него можно на сайте ETS (та же организация, которая делает TOEFL).
В следующей статье я расскажу как я готовилась к GRE и как его сдавала, так что следите за обновлениями.
Полезные книги
(BetterWorldBooks.com – бесплатная доставка по всему миру)

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